Construction encompasses a wide range of activities involving building, altering, and/or repair. Examples include residential construction, roadway paving, excavations, demolitions, and large scale painting jobs. Construction workers engage in many activities that potentially expose them to serious hazards such as falls from elevated work, unguarded machinery, being struck by heavy construction equipment, electrocutions, and exposure to silica dust, lead and asbestos.

The construction industry has standards which apply specifically to its activities. In addition, some general industry standards may apply as well. For example, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Hazard Communication standards apply to both general industry and to construction.

The Big 4 Construction Hazards are Falls, Electrocution, Caught-in-Between Hazards, and Struck-by Hazards.